From: rendan 12/05/2001 0:31:35
Subject: Some facts on food poisoning post id: 298202
After reading the Chopping Boards Thread I decided to compile these facts for you all, most of this information is from standard training modules taht all chefs have to complete in Australia.


Food Poisioning

Food that is incorrectly handled or stored is potentialy fatal. In rare cases, illnesses can be passed on just by handling contaminated food. Food poisoning occurs when a person becomes sick after eating food that is contaminated (poisonous).

Symptoms -

nausea
vomiting
fevers and chills
stomach cramps
diarrhoea
gastro-enteritis
dehydration

In servere cases -

double vision
paralysis of the vocal chords
paralysis of the digestive system, heart and lungs, leading to death

FOOD DOES NOT HAVE TO LOOK OR TASTE BAD TO BE CONTAMINATED

Bacteria is the main cause of food poisoning, bacteria need the following conditions to grow and multiply -

warmth
moisture
time
food
oxygen

When bacteria growth is high the bacteria cells change into toxins taht are resistant to heat and cold, here are some examples -

staphylococcus aureus - Contained in our throats and noses.

clostridium perfringens - Toxic organism found in the intestines of animals, dirt and soil.

salmonella - Found in the intestines of warm blooded animals.

When food is left between 2c and 60c bacteria in the food starts to increase. After a period of about 4 - 6 hours at room temperature the bacteria poisons the food. Chilling or cooking this food will not kill the bacteria if the bacteria has reached the toxic level (1million bacteria per gram).

The most common place where food poisoning occurs is at home in the kitchen. Food poisoning is as common of causing financial loss as the flu. It is a very serious issue, it can make you very sick, or even kill you.


From: Zardoz ®
Subject: Medical
The most prevalent foodborne pathogens that cause foodborne illness are listed below.


Campylobacter jejuni

FOUND: intestinal tracts of animals and birds, raw milk, untreated water, and sewage sludge.
TRANSMISSION: contaminated water, raw milk, and raw or under-cooked meat, poultry, or shellfish.
SYMPTOMS: fever, headache and muscle pain followed by diarrhea (sometimes bloody), abdominal pain and nausea that appear 2 to 5 days after eating; may last 7 to 10 days.


Clostridium botulinum

FOUND: widely distributed in nature; soil, water, on plants, and intestinal tracts of animals and fish. Grows only in little or no oxygen.
TRANSMISSION: bacteria produce a toxin that causes illness. Improperly canned foods, garlic in oil, vacuum-packed and tightly wrapped food.
SYMPTOMS: Toxin affects the nervous system. Symptoms usually appear 18 to 36 hours, but can sometimes appear as few as 4 hours or as many as 8 days after eating; double vision, droopy eyelids, trouble speaking and swallowing, and difficulty breathing. Fatal in 3 to 10 days if not treated.


Clostridium perfringens

FOUND: soil, dust, sewage, and intestinal tracts of animals and humans. Grows only in little or no oxygen.
TRANSMISSION: called "the cafeteria germ" because many outbreaks result from food left for long periods in steam tables or at room temperature. Bacteria destroyed by cooking, but some toxin-producing spores may survive.
SYMPTOMS: diarrhea and gas pains may appear 8 to 24 hours after eating; usually last about 1 day, but less severe symptoms may persist for 1 to 2 weeks.


Escherichia coli 0157:H7

FOUND: intestinal tracts of some mammals, raw milk, unchlorinated water; one of several strains of E. coli than can cause human illness.
TRANSMISSION: contaminated water, raw milk, raw or rare ground beef, unpasteurized apple juice or cider, uncooked fruits and vegetables; person-to-person.
SYMPTOMS: diarrhea or bloody diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, and malaise; can begin 2 to 5 days after food is eaten, lasting about 8 days. Some, especially the very young, have developed Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) that causes acute kidney failure. A similar illness, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), may occur in older adults.


Listeria monocytogenes

FOUND: intestinal tracts of humans and animals, milk, soil, leaf vegetables, and processed foods; can grow slowly at refrigerator temperatures.
TRANSMISSION: soft cheese, raw milk, improperly processed ice cream, raw leafy vegetables, meat, and poultry. Illness caused by bacteria which do not produce toxin.
SYMPTOMS: fever, chills, headache, backache, sometimes abdominal pain and diarrhea; 12 hours to 3 weeks; may later develop more serious illness in at-risk patients (meningitis or spontaneous abortion in pregnant women); sometimes just fatigue.


Salmonella (over 2300 types)

FOUND: intestinal tract and feces of animals; Salmonella enteritidis in raw shell eggs.
TRANSMISSION: raw or undercooked eggs, poultry, and meat; raw milk and dairy products; seafood and food handlers.
SYMPTOMS: stomach pain, diarrhea, nausea, chills, fever, and headache usually appear 8 to 72 hours after eating; may last 1 to 2 days.


Shigella (over 30 types)

FOUND: human intestinal tract; rarely found in other animals.
TRANSMISSION: person-to-person by fecal-oral route; fecal contamination of food and water. Most outbreaks result from food, especially salads, prepared and handled by workers using poor personal hygiene.
SYMPTOMS: disease referred to as "shigellosis" or bacillary dysentery. Diarrhea containing blood and mucus, fever, abdominal cramps, chills, and vomiting; 12 to 50 hours from ingestion of bacteria; can last a few days to 2 weeks.


Staphylococcus aureus

FOUND: on humans (skin, infected cuts, pimples, noses, and throats).
TRANSMISSION: people to food through improper food handling. Multiply rapidly at room temperature to produce a toxin that causes illness.
SYMPTOMS: severe nausea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, and diarrhea occur 1 to 6 hours after eating; recovery within 2 to 3 days - longer if severe dehydration occurs.

http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/qa-topfd.html


From: Arno 12/05/2001 9:38:06
Subject: re: Some facts on food poisoning post id: 298398
So I then ask the question..,
Should we or should we not ban the doggy bag?

I would like to point out that most bugs caught in our own kitchens are due to reheating food. Particularly with a microwave which is not real flash at heating foods evenly.

Arno


From: J.F. 12/05/2001 10:06:36
Subject: re: Some facts on food poisoning post id: 298406
bacteria need the following conditions to grow and multiply -

warmth
moisture
time
food
oxygen

Actually, oxygen is not required: Campylobacter will not grow in air. It is a "microaerophilic" bacterium, so it likes a teeny bit of oxygen, but not too much or it dies. Many other bacteria (eg Salmonella) grow OK +/- oxygen, so the absence of oxygen does not reduce the risk. Clostridium requires the "complete" absence of oxygen: it is an "obligate anaerobe".

When bacteria growth is high the bacteria cells change into toxins taht are resistant to heat and cold

Not quite right. Some bacteria secrete toxins as they grow (or release them as they die eg LPS)

here are some examples -

staphylococcus aureus - Contained in our throats and noses.

and guts and hands and in boils etc...

clostridium perfringens - Toxic organism found in the intestines of animals, dirt and soil.

salmonella - Found in the intestines of warm blooded animals.


True enough. They are toxin- producing + invasive, but "toxic" is close, for a non-Microbioogist.

When food is left between 2c and 60c bacteria in the food starts to increase. After a period of about 4 - 6 hours at room temperature the bacteria poisons the food. Chilling or cooking this food will not kill the bacteria if the bacteria has reached the toxic level (1million bacteria per gram).

I would not be so confident in naming such a "toxic level" of bacteria. It is not that simple. Cooking the food kills the bacteria (not Clostridium spores, though) but inactivates only some toxins; the "heat labile" ones.

Listeria grows quite well at 4C, unfortunately, and can cause blood poisoning (bacteremia/ septicemia) in vulnerable people such as the elderly.

(I picked a "L. monocytogenes" recently, just from the Gram stain of his blood ... and the clinical history so kindly provided by the medicos :)))) big!! kudos at work!!! I told our registrar so he could put the patient on the right drugs immediately, not wait for culture + sensitivity which takes at least another day or 2)

They get it from eating food stored in the fridge usually: I recall another old widower man who ate lots of those serve -yourself salads from the supermarket. A pity he got sick, as he was trying to take good care, eat right etc.

Listeria is supposed to be also found in "soft" cheeses and other dairy foods stored a long time. It can cause infections in pregnant women (intra-uterine I think, and ??septic abortion/ miscarriage AFAICR) so they are told to avoid certain foods in pregnancy.

Yersinia also grows OK at 4C; we used to use "cold enrichment" to isolate it from faeces.

The most common place where food poisoning occurs is at home in the kitchen. Food poisoning is as common of causing financial loss as the flu. It is a very serious issue, it can make you very sick, or even kill you.

True, unfortunately.


From: mildmanneredj 12/05/2001 11:58:05
Subject: re: Some facts on food poisoning post id: 298443
"I would like to point out that most bugs caught in our own kitchens are due to reheating food. Particularly with a microwave which is not real flash at heating foods evenly."

I think that a microwave would be a preferred mode of reheating because of its relative speed, thus allowing the food to be in the temperature danger zone (40-140F) for a lesser amount of time. As you said though, there is an issue of unevenness of cooking, so you must make sure that all parts of the food are reheated to the proper temperature.


From: Purple 12/05/2001 12:27:57
Subject: re: Some facts on food poisoning post id: 298453
Considering that our kitchens are supposed to be a bacteria haven, we (in this house) have little evidence of having contracted food poisoning at home ever.

From: J.F. 13/05/2001 10:04:59
Subject: re: Some facts on food poisoning post id: 298885
Purple, most bacteria are OK. Only very few are "pathogenic" = able to cause disease. Even then, most are only pathogenic if they are in the wrong place, at the wrong time.
eg:
S. aureus is part of normal GUT flora, but makes a mess of wounds, ulcers, can cause pneumonia or UTI, + is a major headache in hospitals. Methicillin-resistant SA is a world wide problem now, too.

E. coli in the gut is OK, but if it travels into the bladder it causes most UTIs.
etc.

Raw meat is covered with bacteria that may cause human disease, but proper cooking solves that. In the old days, people learned to cook + run a household kitchen, but a "she'll be right" attitude has spread widely now.

If you have no problems, it tells me you "run" your kitchen + whole house properly. No time to say more now; off to church then to visit Mum + Dad. She's cooking lunch, at 80! They bred'em tough in those days :)


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